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Since July , it has been possible to select a Creative Commons attribution license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material.

Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.

The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen based on the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.

Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between and , following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.

The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach an agreement on a licensing deal.

The dispute was resolved in September It offers advertising-free streaming, access to exclusive content, background and offline video playback on mobile devices, and access to the Google Play Music "All Access" service.

In May , before Music Key service was launched, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services and that YouTube would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service.

In a statement to the Financial Times in June , Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms.

However, YouTube itself has not confirmed the deal. During the World Series in which it was the presenting sponsor , YouTube TV ads were placed behind the home plate.

The trademarked red play button logo appeared at the center of the screen, mimicking YouTube's interface. YouTube Go is an Android app aimed at making YouTube easier to access on mobile devices in emerging markets.

It is distinct from the company's main Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users.

It also allows users to preview videos, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth , and offers more options for mobile data control and video resolution.

YouTube announced the project in September at an event in India. In early , Cohen began hinting at the possible launch of YouTube's new subscription music streaming service, a platform that would compete with other services such as Spotify and Apple Music.

In September , YouTube announced that it would be launching a beta version of a new platform of 15—second videos, similar to TikTok , called YouTube Shorts.

The platform will first be tested in India. Like TikTok, it will give users access to built-in creative tools, including the possibility of adding licensed music to their videos.

YouTube later renamed the feature "YouTube Stories" and is only available to creators who have more than 10, subscribers. YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year from to In , all links to videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley 's music video " Never Gonna Give You Up ", a prank known as " rickrolling ".

The next year, the site celebrated its "th anniversary" with a range of sepia-toned silent, early s-style films, including a parody of Keyboard Cat.

In , YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim in an uploaded video that the video-sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would shut down for ten years before being re-launched in , featuring only the winning video.

The video starred several YouTube celebrities , including Antoine Dodson. A video of two presenters announcing the nominated videos streamed live for 12 hours.

In , YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming trends, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance".

In , YouTube introduced a global program to develop creators whose videos produce a positive social impact.

The Space gives content creators a physical location to learn about producing content as well as providing them with facilities to create content for their YouTube channels.

Both private individuals [] and large production companies [] have used YouTube to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic.

Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution," TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication.

Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world.

Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the " Kony " video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to Kony's demise than all other action combined.

Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House 's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in [] and in a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson 's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act Obamacare -compliant health insurance.

President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare [] but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation.

Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.

The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers [] and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra [] selected their membership based on individual video performances.

YouTube deleted 30 music videos after the complaint. In January , it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television.

Prior to , Google did not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in were noted as " not material " in a regulatory filing.

Google first published exact revenue numbers for YouTube in February as part of Alphabet's financial report. The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox , and Disney.

There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. Usually no more than half of the eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers.

YouTube policies restrict certain forms of content from being included in videos being monetized with advertising, including videos containing violence, strong language, sexual content, "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown" unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain" , [] and videos whose user comments contain "inappropriate" content.

In , YouTube introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch videos.

YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue.

YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos , content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior.

At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act.

Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.

YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works". During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site.

The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation , which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights".

Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling. In August , a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her month-old son dancing to Prince 's song " Let's Go Crazy ", and posted the second video on YouTube.

In April , a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. YouTube responded by stating:.

We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers, and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube community.

When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG. In June , YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright.

Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom , which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute.

When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found. By , YouTube had "already invested tens of millions of dollars in this technology".

An independent test in uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.

Since April , videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute. YouTube has also faced criticism over the handling of offensive content in some of its videos.

The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines".

To limit the spread of misinformation and fake news via YouTube, it has rolled out a comprehensive policy regarding how to planned to deal with technically manipulated videos.

YouTube has also been criticised for suppressing opinions dissenting from governments' positions, especially related to the coronavirus pandemic.

Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster , in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users.

Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly.

In October , U. YouTube's policies on " advertiser-friendly content " restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, [] sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain".

DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name".

A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators".

In March , the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremist content.

The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered safely and appropriately". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U.

Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear".

The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video. On April 6, , YouTube announced that to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.

In January , YouTube creator Logan Paul faced criticism for a video he had uploaded from a trip to Japan, where he encountered a body of a suicide death in the Aokigahara forest.

The corpse was visible in the video, although its face was censored. The video proved controversial due to its content, with its handling of the subject matter being deemed insensitive by critics.

On January 10—eleven days after the video was published—YouTube announced that it would cut Paul from the Google Preferred advertising program.

Six days later, YouTube announced tighter thresholds for the partner program to "significantly improve our ability to identify creators who contribute positively to the community", under which channels must have at least 4, hours of watch time within the past 12 months and at least 1, subscribers.

YouTube also announced that videos approved for the Google Preferred program would become subject to manual review and that videos would be rated based on suitability with advertisers allowed to choose.

These changes led to further criticism of YouTube from independent channels, who alleged that the service had been changing its algorithms to give higher prominence to professionally produced content such as celebrities, music videos, and clips from late night talk shows , that attract wide viewership and has a lower risk of alienating mainstream advertisers, at the expense of the creators that had bolstered the service's popularity.

YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives great prominence to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe discourse.

When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more-extreme viewpoints.

In , it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites, and hate preachers who received ad payouts.

Alex Jones , known for right-wing conspiracy theories, had built a massive audience on YouTube. In January , YouTube said that it had introduced a new policy starting in the United States intended to stop recommending videos containing "content that could misinform users in harmful ways.

A July study based on ten YouTube searches using the Tor Browser related to the climate and climate change, the majority of videos were videos that communicated views contrary to the scientific consensus on climate change.

A BBC investigation of YouTube searches in ten different languages found that YouTube's algorithm promoted health misinformation, including fake cancer cures.

Following the dissemination via YouTube of misinformation related to the COVID pandemic that 5G communications technology was responsible for the spread of coronavirus disease which led to numerous 5G towers in the United Kingdom to be destroyed, YouTube removed all such videos linking 5G and the coronavirus in this manner.

Before , YouTube has taken steps to remove specific videos or channels related to supremacist content that had violated its acceptable use policies but otherwise did not have site-wide policies against hate speech.

In the wake of the March Christchurch mosque attacks , YouTube and other sites like Facebook and Twitter that allowed user-submitted content drew criticism for doing little to moderate and control the spread of hate speech, which was considered to be a factor in the rationale for the attacks.

YouTube joined an initiative led by France and New Zealand with other countries and tech companies in May to develop tools to be used to block online hate speech and to develop regulations, to be implemented at the national level, to be levied against technology firms that failed to take steps to remove such speech, though the United States declined to participate.

YouTube further stated it would "remove content denying that well-documented violent events, like the Holocaust or the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary, took place.

Spencer , asserting these channels violated their policies on hate speech. Leading into , there was a significant increase in the number of videos related to children, coupled between the popularity of parents vlogging their family's activities, and previous content creators moving away from content that often was criticized or demonetized into family-friendly material.

During Q2 , the owners of popular channel FamilyOFive , which featured themselves playing "pranks" on their children, were accused of child abuse.

Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody. Her videos would later be deleted.

Later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views.

The term " Elsagate " was coined on the Internet and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy. Later that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels that made improper use of family friendly characters.

As part as a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions also targeted channels which showed children taking part in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the guidance of adults.

Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks , a channel with over 8. Even for content that appears to be aimed at children and appears to contain only child-friendly content, YouTube's system allows for anonymity of who uploads these videos.

These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children's content which, after becoming popular, then suddenly include inappropriate content masked as children's content.

One channel that had been of concern was " Cocomelon " which provided numerous mass-produced animated videos aimed at children. Ownership of Cocomelon was unclear outside of its ties to "Treasure Studio", itself an unknown entity, raising questions as to the channel's purpose, [] [] [] but Bloomberg News had been able to confirm and interview the small team of American owners in February regarding "Cocomelon", who stated their goal for the channel was to simply entertain children, wanting to keep to themselves to avoid attention from outside investors.

In January , YouTube officially banned videos containing "challenges that encourage acts that have an inherent risk of severe physical harm" such as, for example, the Tide Pod Challenge , and videos featuring pranks that "make victims believe they're in physical danger" or cause emotional distress in children.

Also in November , it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children—often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content such as the children playing with toys or performing gymnastics—were attracting comments from pedophiles [] [] with predators finding the videos through private YouTube playlists or typing in certain keywords in Russian.

As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about "Elsagate", several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube.

In February , YouTube vlogger Matt Watson identified a "wormhole" that would cause the YouTube recommendation algorithm to draw users into this type of video content, and make all of that user's recommended content feature only these types of videos.

Most of these videos had comments from sexual predators commenting with timestamps of when the children were shown in compromising positions, or otherwise making indecent remarks.

In some cases, other users had reuploaded the video in unlisted form but with incoming links from other videos, and then monetized these, propagating this network.

A spokesperson explained that "any content—including comments—that endangers minors is abhorrent and we have clear policies prohibiting this on YouTube.

There's more to be done, and we continue to work to improve and catch abuse more quickly. Subsequently, YouTube began to demonetize and block advertising on the types of videos that have drawn these predatory comments.

The service explained that this was a temporary measure while they explore other methods to eliminate the problem.

These actions mainly target videos of toddlers, but videos of older children and teenagers may be protected as well if they contain actions that can be interpreted as sexual, such as gymnastics.

YouTube stated it was also working on a better system to remove comments on other channels that matched the style of child predators.

YouTube apologized for the errors, and reinstated the affected videos. YouTube stated they do not take action on any video with these comments but those that they have flagged that are likely to draw child predator activity.

In June , The New York Times cited researchers who found that users who watched erotic videos could be recommended seemingly innocuous videos of children.

In particular, the FTC ruled that YouTube was partly liable under COPPA, as the service's rating and curation of content as being suitable for children constituted the targeting of the website towards children.

YouTube began to implement its compliance approach in November , in line with its settlement with the FTC.

All channels must declare if their content is "made for kids", either as a blanket claim for their entire channel, or on a per-video basis.

The company states that a video is considered "made for kids" if its primary audience is children, or is "directed" to children based on various factors as guidelines even if they are not the primary audience , including use of child actors, "characters, celebrities, or toys that appeal to children", depictions of "activities that appeal to children, such as play-acting, simple songs or games, or early education", and poems, songs, and stories intended for children, among others.

YouTube will employ machine learning to find videos that they believe are clearly "made for kids" and automatically mark them as such, but will not help or advise content creators for videos that fall into unclear categories, as this constitutes legal advice.

As a result, social and community features such as end screens and other widgets, notification functions, and comments are disabled, and videos can only be monetized with contextual advertising based on the video's metadata.

The new policies have faced criticism, with some channel owners having considered YouTube and the FTC's guidance to be unclear in certain edge cases, such as video gaming where content may typically be directed towards teens and young adults, but may still contain characters that appeal to children.

They also noted that according to YouTube, a lack of targeted ads can reduce a video's revenue, and that the lack of social features may impact the ability for their videos to receive promotion.

The legal language of COPPA offered the ability for content to be marked for "mixed audience", which would allow for data collection from the viewers once the viewer had identified themselves of being 13 years or older.

YouTube's decision not to include a "mixed audience" as a third option has been criticized, since this option would alleviate content creator concerns.

FTC commissioner Rebecca Kelly Slaughter noted in dissenting remarks that many of the child-directed channels on YouTube were run by owners outside of the U.

The FTC also directed creators to its original complaint against YouTube, identifying channels and video content that they considered to be under COPPA that was the basis of their case.

On December 10, , citing the aforementioned criticism, YouTube filed comments with the FTC requesting clarity on its rules, citing the aforementioned edge cases.

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In , Time praised Web 2.

Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".

Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance—with the occasional burst of wit shining through.

In September , The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".

The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone.

In the same article Melvin goes on to say: []. Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad.

Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation.

Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.

On November 3, , YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.

They can also allow other users to moderate their comments. In December , two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts.

This was disputed by Billboard , which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube. As of April , the video's true view count is 9.

In , YouTube introduced a system that would automatically add information boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other fake news , filling the infobox with content from Encyclopedia Britannica and Wikipedia as a means to inform users to minimize misinformation propagation without impacting freedom of speech.

Several users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithms had misidentified the fire videos and added the information block automatically, and were taking steps to remedy this.

The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithms discourage content with words like "lesbian" or "gay", which would be predominant in their channels' content, and because of YouTube's near-monopolization of online video services, they are abusing that position.

In October YouTube deactivated two channels run by "pick-up artists" after a BBC investigation into the online industry.

The company added: "YouTube strictly prohibits explicit sexual, graphic or harassing content. Nothing is more important than protecting the safety of our community, and we will continue to review and refine our policies in this area.

YouTube has been censored, filtered, or banned for a variety of reasons, including: []. Access to specific videos is sometimes prevented due to copyright and intellectual property protection laws e.

In some countries, YouTube is blocked for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries.

In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the channel, see YouTube channel. Video-sharing service owned by Google. Internet Video hosting service.

Main article: History of YouTube. Main article: YouTube Premium. Main article: YouTube TV. Main article: YouTube Music.

Main article: Social impact of YouTube. Main article: Content ID algorithm. See also: Elsagate. See also: YouTube Kids.

Main article: Censorship of YouTube. Has local YouTube version. Currently blocked. Previously blocked. Listen to this article.

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Retrieved April 4, Retrieved March 18, The Himalayan Times. January 13, Retrieved January 31, The Express Tribune. January 12, Retrieved August 4, October 30, Six days later, YouTube announced tighter thresholds for the partner program to "significantly improve our ability to identify creators who contribute positively to the community", under which channels must have at least 4, hours of watch time within the past 12 months and at least 1, subscribers.

YouTube also announced that videos approved for the Google Preferred program would become subject to manual review and that videos would be rated based on suitability with advertisers allowed to choose.

These changes led to further criticism of YouTube from independent channels, who alleged that the service had been changing its algorithms to give higher prominence to professionally produced content such as celebrities, music videos, and clips from late night talk shows , that attract wide viewership and has a lower risk of alienating mainstream advertisers, at the expense of the creators that had bolstered the service's popularity.

YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives great prominence to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe discourse.

When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more-extreme viewpoints.

In , it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites, and hate preachers who received ad payouts.

Alex Jones , known for right-wing conspiracy theories, had built a massive audience on YouTube. In January , YouTube said that it had introduced a new policy starting in the United States intended to stop recommending videos containing "content that could misinform users in harmful ways.

A July study based on ten YouTube searches using the Tor Browser related to the climate and climate change, the majority of videos were videos that communicated views contrary to the scientific consensus on climate change.

A BBC investigation of YouTube searches in ten different languages found that YouTube's algorithm promoted health misinformation, including fake cancer cures.

Following the dissemination via YouTube of misinformation related to the COVID pandemic that 5G communications technology was responsible for the spread of coronavirus disease which led to numerous 5G towers in the United Kingdom to be destroyed, YouTube removed all such videos linking 5G and the coronavirus in this manner.

Before , YouTube has taken steps to remove specific videos or channels related to supremacist content that had violated its acceptable use policies but otherwise did not have site-wide policies against hate speech.

In the wake of the March Christchurch mosque attacks , YouTube and other sites like Facebook and Twitter that allowed user-submitted content drew criticism for doing little to moderate and control the spread of hate speech, which was considered to be a factor in the rationale for the attacks.

YouTube joined an initiative led by France and New Zealand with other countries and tech companies in May to develop tools to be used to block online hate speech and to develop regulations, to be implemented at the national level, to be levied against technology firms that failed to take steps to remove such speech, though the United States declined to participate.

YouTube further stated it would "remove content denying that well-documented violent events, like the Holocaust or the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary, took place.

Spencer , asserting these channels violated their policies on hate speech. Leading into , there was a significant increase in the number of videos related to children, coupled between the popularity of parents vlogging their family's activities, and previous content creators moving away from content that often was criticized or demonetized into family-friendly material.

During Q2 , the owners of popular channel FamilyOFive , which featured themselves playing "pranks" on their children, were accused of child abuse.

Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody. Her videos would later be deleted. Later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views.

The term " Elsagate " was coined on the Internet and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy.

Later that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels that made improper use of family friendly characters.

As part as a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions also targeted channels which showed children taking part in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the guidance of adults.

Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks , a channel with over 8. Even for content that appears to be aimed at children and appears to contain only child-friendly content, YouTube's system allows for anonymity of who uploads these videos.

These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children's content which, after becoming popular, then suddenly include inappropriate content masked as children's content.

One channel that had been of concern was " Cocomelon " which provided numerous mass-produced animated videos aimed at children.

Ownership of Cocomelon was unclear outside of its ties to "Treasure Studio", itself an unknown entity, raising questions as to the channel's purpose, [] [] [] but Bloomberg News had been able to confirm and interview the small team of American owners in February regarding "Cocomelon", who stated their goal for the channel was to simply entertain children, wanting to keep to themselves to avoid attention from outside investors.

In January , YouTube officially banned videos containing "challenges that encourage acts that have an inherent risk of severe physical harm" such as, for example, the Tide Pod Challenge , and videos featuring pranks that "make victims believe they're in physical danger" or cause emotional distress in children.

Also in November , it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children—often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content such as the children playing with toys or performing gymnastics—were attracting comments from pedophiles [] [] with predators finding the videos through private YouTube playlists or typing in certain keywords in Russian.

As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about "Elsagate", several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube.

In February , YouTube vlogger Matt Watson identified a "wormhole" that would cause the YouTube recommendation algorithm to draw users into this type of video content, and make all of that user's recommended content feature only these types of videos.

Most of these videos had comments from sexual predators commenting with timestamps of when the children were shown in compromising positions, or otherwise making indecent remarks.

In some cases, other users had reuploaded the video in unlisted form but with incoming links from other videos, and then monetized these, propagating this network.

A spokesperson explained that "any content—including comments—that endangers minors is abhorrent and we have clear policies prohibiting this on YouTube.

There's more to be done, and we continue to work to improve and catch abuse more quickly. Subsequently, YouTube began to demonetize and block advertising on the types of videos that have drawn these predatory comments.

The service explained that this was a temporary measure while they explore other methods to eliminate the problem. These actions mainly target videos of toddlers, but videos of older children and teenagers may be protected as well if they contain actions that can be interpreted as sexual, such as gymnastics.

YouTube stated it was also working on a better system to remove comments on other channels that matched the style of child predators.

YouTube apologized for the errors, and reinstated the affected videos. YouTube stated they do not take action on any video with these comments but those that they have flagged that are likely to draw child predator activity.

In June , The New York Times cited researchers who found that users who watched erotic videos could be recommended seemingly innocuous videos of children.

In particular, the FTC ruled that YouTube was partly liable under COPPA, as the service's rating and curation of content as being suitable for children constituted the targeting of the website towards children.

YouTube began to implement its compliance approach in November , in line with its settlement with the FTC. All channels must declare if their content is "made for kids", either as a blanket claim for their entire channel, or on a per-video basis.

The company states that a video is considered "made for kids" if its primary audience is children, or is "directed" to children based on various factors as guidelines even if they are not the primary audience , including use of child actors, "characters, celebrities, or toys that appeal to children", depictions of "activities that appeal to children, such as play-acting, simple songs or games, or early education", and poems, songs, and stories intended for children, among others.

YouTube will employ machine learning to find videos that they believe are clearly "made for kids" and automatically mark them as such, but will not help or advise content creators for videos that fall into unclear categories, as this constitutes legal advice.

As a result, social and community features such as end screens and other widgets, notification functions, and comments are disabled, and videos can only be monetized with contextual advertising based on the video's metadata.

The new policies have faced criticism, with some channel owners having considered YouTube and the FTC's guidance to be unclear in certain edge cases, such as video gaming where content may typically be directed towards teens and young adults, but may still contain characters that appeal to children.

They also noted that according to YouTube, a lack of targeted ads can reduce a video's revenue, and that the lack of social features may impact the ability for their videos to receive promotion.

The legal language of COPPA offered the ability for content to be marked for "mixed audience", which would allow for data collection from the viewers once the viewer had identified themselves of being 13 years or older.

YouTube's decision not to include a "mixed audience" as a third option has been criticized, since this option would alleviate content creator concerns.

FTC commissioner Rebecca Kelly Slaughter noted in dissenting remarks that many of the child-directed channels on YouTube were run by owners outside of the U.

The FTC also directed creators to its original complaint against YouTube, identifying channels and video content that they considered to be under COPPA that was the basis of their case.

On December 10, , citing the aforementioned criticism, YouTube filed comments with the FTC requesting clarity on its rules, citing the aforementioned edge cases.

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content.

In , Time praised Web 2. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".

Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance—with the occasional burst of wit shining through.

In September , The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".

The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone.

In the same article Melvin goes on to say: []. Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad.

Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation.

Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.

On November 3, , YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.

They can also allow other users to moderate their comments. In December , two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts.

This was disputed by Billboard , which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.

As of April , the video's true view count is 9. In , YouTube introduced a system that would automatically add information boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other fake news , filling the infobox with content from Encyclopedia Britannica and Wikipedia as a means to inform users to minimize misinformation propagation without impacting freedom of speech.

Several users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithms had misidentified the fire videos and added the information block automatically, and were taking steps to remedy this.

The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithms discourage content with words like "lesbian" or "gay", which would be predominant in their channels' content, and because of YouTube's near-monopolization of online video services, they are abusing that position.

In October YouTube deactivated two channels run by "pick-up artists" after a BBC investigation into the online industry. The company added: "YouTube strictly prohibits explicit sexual, graphic or harassing content.

Nothing is more important than protecting the safety of our community, and we will continue to review and refine our policies in this area.

YouTube has been censored, filtered, or banned for a variety of reasons, including: []. Access to specific videos is sometimes prevented due to copyright and intellectual property protection laws e.

In some countries, YouTube is blocked for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries.

In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the channel, see YouTube channel. Video-sharing service owned by Google.

Internet Video hosting service. Main article: History of YouTube. Main article: YouTube Premium. Main article: YouTube TV.

Main article: YouTube Music. Main article: Social impact of YouTube. Main article: Content ID algorithm. See also: Elsagate. See also: YouTube Kids.

Main article: Censorship of YouTube. Has local YouTube version. Currently blocked. Previously blocked. Listen to this article. This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits.

Audio help More spoken articles. The Verge. Retrieved February 3, Retrieved January 11, The Register. Retrieved September 16, Official Google Code Blog.

Retrieved March 25, High Scalability. Retrieved October 13, October 23, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved June 10, Retrieved November 3, The Guardian.

March 23, Wired UK. February 20, USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved March 26, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign.

Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved November 29, There's a third YouTube co-founder". Retrieved June 19, Retrieved March 15, The New York Times.

The New York Times Vol. The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved April 1, The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. April 23, Retrieved August 3, Wayback Machine.

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They can also allow other users to moderate their comments. In December , two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts.

This was disputed by Billboard , which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.

As of April , the video's true view count is 9. In , YouTube introduced a system that would automatically add information boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other fake news , filling the infobox with content from Encyclopedia Britannica and Wikipedia as a means to inform users to minimize misinformation propagation without impacting freedom of speech.

Several users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithms had misidentified the fire videos and added the information block automatically, and were taking steps to remedy this.

The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithms discourage content with words like "lesbian" or "gay", which would be predominant in their channels' content, and because of YouTube's near-monopolization of online video services, they are abusing that position.

In October YouTube deactivated two channels run by "pick-up artists" after a BBC investigation into the online industry. The company added: "YouTube strictly prohibits explicit sexual, graphic or harassing content.

Nothing is more important than protecting the safety of our community, and we will continue to review and refine our policies in this area. YouTube has been censored, filtered, or banned for a variety of reasons, including: [].

Access to specific videos is sometimes prevented due to copyright and intellectual property protection laws e.

In some countries, YouTube is blocked for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries.

In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the channel, see YouTube channel. Video-sharing service owned by Google.

Internet Video hosting service. Main article: History of YouTube. Main article: YouTube Premium. Main article: YouTube TV.

Main article: YouTube Music. Main article: Social impact of YouTube. Main article: Content ID algorithm. See also: Elsagate. See also: YouTube Kids.

Main article: Censorship of YouTube. Has local YouTube version. Currently blocked. Previously blocked. Listen to this article. This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits.

Audio help More spoken articles. The Verge. Retrieved February 3, Retrieved January 11, The Register. Retrieved September 16, Official Google Code Blog.

Retrieved March 25, High Scalability. Retrieved October 13, October 23, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved June 10, Retrieved November 3, The Guardian.

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Joe and Beck's fledgling relationship is tested by Beck friend Peach's intrusive meddling. Joe does everything in his power to solve his Peach problem without making a mess, but Peach isn't making it easy.

Joe's fight for Beck's heart takes him out of the city. An accident injures him along the way, but Joe's not going to let a little thing like a head injury stand between him and true love.

His devotion to Beck take him to a lavish but eerily remote summer home and a face-to-face with a worthy, equally-obsessed adversary who is just as intent on possessing her heart.

Beck suffers a loss and Joe is right there with a shoulder to lean on. But he can't quite shake the worry and jealousy he still feels and he goes to creative lengths to explore his fears, even creating a fake identity so that he can give Beck's suspiciously handsome therapist a thorough checking-out.

But Joe's luck is in danger of running out as Beck starts to suspect she's being followed. Joe and Beck's lives have taken very different turns.

On paper, each is doing great. But when a chance encounter brings every possibility to the surface, they each must decide which way they want their story to go.

Beck can't shake the feeling that there's more to the story of Joe's lost former love, Candace. Determined to find out the truth, it's Beck's turn to go to shocking lengths to dig up the truth on Joe.

But she might have gone too far. In the first-season finale, Beck's deepest truths are revealed, and Joe pushes the limits of what he'll do for love.

View All You: Season 1 News. Its sparklingly cruel sense of humour is what makes it compulsively watchable -- through Joe's sardonic narration, the show displays a rare eagerness to ridicule its own characters.

It speaks to the thing that's all too true in life: the hero of a story might, from a different perspective, really be a villain. You is very, very good.

It's been called "bonkers" but you can take that in a good way. The show subliminally questions our stance on the fine line between what we consider affection and infatuation.

It exposes our information vulnerability Addictive yes, but it definitely comes from the type of trashy thriller you would consume in one day by a pool somewhere.

A very addictive thriller that will undoubtedly give us a sinister view of these parties and, at the same time, makes us question whether we have ever been Joe.

The modern version of a Hitchcock character is enough to pull us slowly into a tornado of lies and deceipt. It is pulpy and trashy enough to make it easy to watch despite some eye-rolling plot developments, but with just enough satire - about social media and modern romance - to prod the binge viewers into some reflection.

More Headlines. Top Box Office. More Top Movies Trailers. Certified Fresh Picks. Black Mirror: Season 5. Into The Dark: Season 2. Lovecraft Country: Season 1.

The Mandalorian: Season 1. Saturday Night Live: Season Orphan Black: Season 5. Watchmen: Season 1. Certified Fresh Pick.

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